Why Adults Should Consider a High Potency Multiple Vitamin and Mineral and an Essential Fatty Acid Supplement Each Day
James Meschino DC, MS, ROHP
It is well established that specific vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids participate in the chemical reactions within our cells and blood steam that determine our ability to ability to remain healthy, reduce risk of many diseases and optimize our energy and longevity index. The cumulative scientific evidence over the past 15-20 years has shown that food alone cannot provide the ideal amounts of these nutrients, if health optimization, longevity and disease prevention is your goal. As well, the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of the American public show that 91% of individuals do not meet the recommended dietary intake of levels for all vitamins and minerals, keeping in mind that the recommended dietary intake levels set out by the government are intended to be a minimum threshold level for most nutrients. To achieve optimal health and reduction in risk of many disease states higher intake levels are required for many nutrients. This is why a properly designed High Potency Multiple Vitamin and an Essential Fatty Acid supplement are so important to take each day.
Let’s take a brief look at what some of the nutrients do for us and what levels of supplementation are ideal, from a health optimization standpoint.
Higher blood and tissue levels of antioxidants are associated with decreased risk of many diseases. This is partially explained by the fact that antioxidants quench and neutralize dangerous free radicals that are linked cancer development (free radicals damage the DNA of our cells causing cancerous mutations), heart disease, damage to brain cells linked to the development of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, cataracts and macular degeneration of the eye (the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 55), and accelerated aging of our skin and other tissues. Each day our tissues are bombarded with free radicals, which arise from our use of oxygen in normal metabolism (free radicals are a by-product of oxygen metabolism in the body). Other environmental factors increase our exposure to free radicals, including cigarette smoke, alcohol consumption, nitrosamines (nitrate treated foods), and other environmental agents (i.e., aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines, nitric oxide), including the damage done to our skin and eyes by excessive sun exposure. A large body of evidence has demonstrated that bolstering our antioxidant defences can protect our tissues against the damaging effects of free radicals and has been shown to help reduce the risk of the degenerative diseases and conditions mentioned above. In fact, a number of clinical trials reveal that even certain precancerous conditions have been reversed through targeted antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation.
In addition to eating 5-7 fruit and vegetables per day and drinking green tea, studies suggest that in order to achieve optimal nutritional status for the most important antioxidants, you should take a High Potency Multiple Vitamin and Mineral that contains: Vitamin C (500-1,000 mg), Vitamin E Succinate (200-400 IU, natural source), Beta-carotene (7,500-20,000 IU), selenium (100-200 mcg), Vitamin A (2,000-3,000 IU), as well as some lycopene, lutein and bioflavonoids. The truth is that most multiple vitamins in the market place do not contain these ideal levels, and thus, are often not providing significant reduction against life-threatening degenerative diseases, and other conditions that can significantly compromised your quality of life.
Enhanced B-vitamin status through supplementation has been shown to help reduce risk of heart disease, reduce certain inflammatory states, improve detoxification processes and maintain brain and cognitive function as we age. B-vitamins are essential in the synthesis of brain chemicals required for thinking, memory and other vital brain activities. B-vitamins are essential for the synthesis of red blood cells, DNA and the normal replication of cells from one generation to the next, which is vital to the prevention of cancer. Known also for their anti-stress and anti-fatigue properties, you should make sure that your multiple vitamin supplement contains at least 50 mg of Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, and pantothenic acid, as well as 50 mcg of B12 and 400 mcg of folic acid.
Bone Support Nutrients
Central to the prevention of osteoporosis is the adequate daily intake of calcium, Vitamin D, magnesium, copper and zinc, which together are the essential bone strengthening nutrients. Studies show that across the population most adults are lacking at least 500 mg of calcium per day in their diet, on average to prevent the future development of osteoporosis. Vitamin D nutritional status is also sub-optimal (Vitamin D is necessary to absorb calcium), as is the consumption of zinc. Thus, a well designed multiple vitamin should contain 500 mg of elemental calcium, 1000 IU of Vitamin D, 15 mg of zinc, 250 mg of magnesium and 1-2 mg of copper
Overall Benefits Of A High Potency Multiple Vitamin And Mineral Supplement
A High Potency Multiple Vitamin and Mineral Supplement that contains the levels of antioxidants noted above, a B-50 complex and bone building nutrients (i.e., 500 mg of calcium) can not only help defend your body and brain against degenerative conditions and slow the biological processes of aging, but can also help to improve the quality and texture of your skin, hair and nails, improve sleep quality, strengthen your immune and detoxification systems, and enhance your daily energy level. All of these outcomes are frequently reported by individuals taking a multiple vitamin that meets the criteria outlined above.
Essential Fatty Acids (Flaxseed, Borage Seed and Fish Oil Combination)
In addition to the use of a High Potency Mutliple Vitamin and Mineral Supplement, research in recent years strongly suggests that adults should also take a daily supplement containing flaxseed oil, borage seeed oil and fish oil, to boost the production of min-hormones (prostaglandins) that are shown to reduce risk of heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases, help control blood pressure, reduce joint inflammation, support brain function, reduce risk of age-related dementia, improve immune function, reduce risk of cancer, and enhance the softness and smoothness of the skin. Yes, an essential fatty acid supplement can do all of these things.
The major problem in achieving optimal essential fatty acid status these days stems from the fact that essential fatty acid deficiencies and imbalances are common problems as a result of modern-day agricultural, livestock, and food processing practices, which have significantly reduced the amount of omega-3 fats in our food supply, as well as limited our ability to acquire optimal amounts of GLA (gamma-linolenic acid), and omega-9 fats, which provide a multitude of health benefits.
In the body, essential fatty acids are important components of the outer skin (cell membrane) of every cell, which determines which chemicals and nutrients will be allowed to enter and exit the cell. Thus, essential fats influence the structure, function, and health status of every cell in the body. As vital components of nerve cell membranes, essential fatty acids facilitate nerve conduction, which enables the brain to think, and the transmission of impulses to other nerves, muscles, and organs. Essential fats are required for brain development, vision and as components of the cell membrane, and are used by the body to form prostaglandin hormones, which produce powerful effects on a wide range of tissues, as outlined below.
Essential Fatty Acids, Prostaglandins And Disease
Prostaglandins are local tissue hormones that are produced from the different types of unsaturated fats we consume from our diet, and from supplements containing essential oils. There are three main types of prostaglandin hormones (PG); PG-1, PG-2, and PG-3. Essentially PG-1 and PG-3 produce positive effects on our health while PG-2 produces very undesirable effects. Unfortunately, the dietary habits of most North Americans favors the production of PG-2, which encourages blood vessels to constrict and blood platelets to clot abnormally, restricting blood flow and increasing risk of heart attack, ischemic stroke, and high blood pressure. PG-2 also encourages inflammation, worsening arthritis, other joint, muscle and tendon conditions, as well as other inflammatory conditions (e.g. Crohn’s disease, Colitis). Animal studies reveal that PG-2 may be associated with increased cancer risk in that it encourages more rapid cell division (when cells divide at a faster rate they tend to make more genetic mistakes and have less time to correct these genetic errors, enabling a cancerous mutation to occur). PG-2 formed within skin cells has also been shown to make the skin dry, rough, and scaly, and can aggravate a number of common skin disorders.
So how do you avoid forming too much PG-2? Simple, avoid the foods that contain the type of fats that produce PG-2, such as high fat meat products and high fat dairy products (which contain the unsaturated fat used by the body to make PG-2), as well as corn oil, sunflower seed oil and safflower seed oil.
In addition to eating fish two or three times per week it is highly desirable to optimize your body’s production of PG-1 and PG-3 by taking an essential fatty acid supplement containing a combination of flaxseed, borage seed and fish oil.
The GLA derived from borage seed oil facilitates greater production of PG-1, which reduces inflammation, enhances skin smoothness and helps block the formation of PG-2. As well, the aging process alone and the consumption of alcohol, saturated fat, hydrogenated fats and refined sugar tend to reduce the body’s ability to produce adequate amounts of GLA over our lifetime. Thus, borage seed oil (22% GLA) is a valuable medicinal oil to help the body produce more optimal levels of health-promoting PG- 1 each day of our lives.
In addition, supplementation with flaxseed and fish oil, which contain various omega-3-fats, enable the body to optimize its production of PG-3. PG-3 opens up blood vessels, and improves circulation, which reduces risk of heart and vascular disease. PG-3 slows the replication rate of cells, which reduces cancer risk. PG-3 also reduces inflammatory conditions, makes your skin softer and smoother. As well, omega-3-fats improve brain function and appear to reduce risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. A number of clinical trials have shown that supplementation with omega-3 fats (fish and/or flaxseed oil) can increase synthesis of PG-3 and help improve cardiovascular health, inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and Crohn’s disease, as well as high blood pressure, Raynaud’s disease, eczema, and other conditions.
Your Essential Fatty Acid Plan
Unknowingly, individuals, who do not supplement with a proper essential fatty acid supplement, tend to experience an essential fatty acid deficiency or imbalance, which contributes to numerous health disorders, accelerated aging, and often, poor complexion and poor skin texture. Thus, to ensure optimal essential fatty acid status it is advisable to follow the dietary recommendations outlined above and take an essential fatty acid supplement each day that contains equal amounts (e.g. 400 mg each) of GMO-free flaxseed oil, borage oil, and a high yield fish oil (30% EPA/20DHA). For general health maintenance, I suggest two or three, 1200 mg capsules per day (I personally take 3 capsules per day). This simple practice, along with taking a high potency multiple vitamin and mineral supplement each day, can produce significant positive effects on your health, your appearance, and help reduce your risk of some common illnesses. These two products are life long supplements that should be considered by all individuals over the age of 15 in my view.
High Potency Multiple Vitamin and Mineral Supplement
- United States Department of Agriculture, Food Technology, 1981; 35: 9. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (NHANES II)
- Nutrition For Living – second Edition, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Companies, Inc., 1988: 12-14
- Gutteridge, John M. Antioxidants, Nutritional Supplements, and Life-Threatening Diseases; British Journal of Biomedical Science, Vol. 31 (1994), pp. 288-95
- Ames, Bruce N. et al. Oxidants, Antioxidants, and the Degenerative Diseases of Aging; Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Vol. 90 (September 1993), pp. 7915-22
- Saman, Z., et al. Plasma Concentrations of Vitamins A and E and Carotenoids in Alzheimer’s Disease; Age and Ageing, Vol. 21 (1992), pp.91-94
- Carney, John and Ann. Role of Protein Oxidation in Aging and in Age Associated Neurodegenerative Disease, Life Sciences, Vol. 55, No. 25-26 (1994), pp.1-7
- Smith, Charles D., Carney, John M., Tatsumo, Tohru, et al. Protein Oxidation in Aging Brain; Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Aging and Cellular Defense Mechanism, Vol663 (1003), pp.110-19
- Stampfer, M.J., et al. Vitamin E Consumption and the Risk of Coronary Disease in Women; New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 328 (May 20, 1993), pp.1444-49
- Rimm, Eric B., et al. Vitamin E Consumption and Risk of Coronary Disease in Men; New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 328 (May 20), 1993, pp.1450-56
- Steinberg, D. Clinical Trials of Antioxidants in Atherosclerosis: Are We Doing the Right Thing? Lancet, Vol. 346 (1995), pp.36-38
- Gey, K.E. Inverse Correlation Between Plasma Vitamin E and Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease in Cross-Cultural Epidemiology; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 53 (1991) pp. 3265-345
- Rimm, E.B., Stampfer, A., Ascherio, E. Giovannucci, G.A. Colditz, and W. Willett. Vitamin E Consumption and the Risk of coronart Heart Disease in Men; The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 328 (1993), pp. 1450-56
- Stampfer, M.J., Hennekens, C.H., Manson, J.E., Colditz, G.A., Rosner, B., and W.C. Willett. Vitamin E Consumption and the Risk of coronary Disease in Women; The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 328 (1993), pp. 1444-49
- Gaziano, J.M. Antioxidant vitamins and Coroanry Artery Disease Risk; American journal of Medicine, Vol. 97 (Su[[;e. 3A) (1994), pp. 195-215
- Gaziano, J.M., Manson, J.E., Branch, LG., LaMott, F., Colditz, J.E., and C.H.Hennekens. Dieatry Beta-carotene Intake and Decreased Cardiovascular Mortality in an Elderly Cohort; Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 19 (1992), p.377
- Enstrom, J.E., Kanim, L.E., and Klein, M.A. Vitamin C Intake and a Sample of the United State Population; American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol.3 (1992), pp. 194-202
- Blot, W.J., Li, J.-Y., Tgaylor, P.R., Guo, W., Dawsey, S., Wang, G.-Q., et al. Nutrition Intervention Trials in Linxian, China: Supplementation with Specific Vitamin/Mineral Combinations, Cancer Incidence and Disease-Specific Mortality in the General Population; Journal of the National Cancer Institite, Vol. 85 (1993), pp. 1483-92
- Byers, T. and Perry, G. Dietary Carotenes, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E as Protective Antioxidants in human Cancers; Annual Review of Nutrition, Vol. 12 (1992), pp. 139-59
- Block, G., Patterson, and Subar, A. Fruits, Vegetables and Cancer Prevention: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence; Nutrition and Cancer, Vol.187 (1992), pp. 1029
- Zeigler, R. Vegetables, Fruits, and Carotenoids and the Risk of Cancer; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 53 (1991), pp.2515-2595
- Weisburger, J. Nutriitonal Approach to Cancer Prevention with Emphasis on Vitamins, Antioxidants, and Carotenoids; American journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 53 (1991), pp. 2265-2375
- Frolich, L. and Riederer,P. Free Radical Mechanisms in Dementia of Alzheimer Type and the Potential for Antioxidative Treatment; Drug Research Vol. 45, No.1 (1995), pp. 443-46
- Reiter, R.J. Oxidative Processes and Antioxidant Mechanisms in the Aging Brain; FASEB Journal (1995), p.526
- White, Richard P. and Robertson, James T. Basic Concepts of Antioxidant Therapy; Journal of the Tennessee Medical Association, vol.88, No.2 (1995), pp.54-58
- Evans. Oxidative Damage in Alzheimer’s Dementia, p.178
- Richardson. Free Radicals and Alzheimer’s Disease, p.13
- Yoshikawa, T. Free Radicals and their Scavengers in Parkinson’s Disease; Journal of European Neurology, Vol.33, Supp.1 (1993), pp.60-68
- Meydani, Mohsen. Vitamin E Requirements in Relation to Dietary Fish Oil and Oxidative Stress in the Elderly; Free Radicals and Aging, ed. 1. Emerit and B. Chance, Zurich, Switzerland, Bukhauser Verlag, 1992, p.411-418
- Bunce, G.E. Antioxidant Nutrition and Cataract in Women: A Prospective Study; Nutrition Reviews, Vol.51, No.3 91993), pp.84-85
- Seddon, Johanna M., et al. The Use of Vitamin Supplements and the Risk of Cataract Among U.S. Male Physicians; American Journal of Public Health, Vol.84, No.5 (1994), pp.788-92
- Christen, William, G. Antioxidants and Eye Disease; The American Journal of Medicine, Vol.97, Supp. 3A (1994), pp.145-175
- Van Der Hagen, Anita M., et al. Free Radicals and Antioxidant Supplementation: A Review of their Roles in Age-Related Macular Degeneration; Journal of the American Optometric Association, Vol.64 (1993), pp.871-78
- Christen. Antioxidants and eye diseases, pp.145-175
- Robertson, James McD., et al. A Possible Role for Vitamins C and E in Cataract prevention; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 53 (1991), pp.3465-3515
- Jacques, Paul E., et al. Antioxidant Status in Persons with and without Senile Cataract; Archives of Ophthalmology; Vol.106 (1988), pp.337-340
- Seddon, J.M. Dieatry Carotenoids, Vitamins A, C and E, and Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration; JAMA, Vol.272, No.18 (1994), pp.1413-20
- Clark, I.C., et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. JAMA, 1996. 276: 24: 1957-63
- Giovannucci, et al. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995, 87; 23: 1767-76
- Rao, V.A., et al. Serum and tissue lycopene and biomarkers of oxidation in prostate cancer patients: A case-control study. Nutr and Cancer, 1999; 33: 2: 159-164
- Sigounas, G., et al. DL-alpha-tocopherol induces apoptosis in erythroleukemia, prostate and breast cancer cells. 1997, Nutrition and Cancer, 28; 1: 30-35
- Heinonen, O.P., et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with Alpha-Tocopherol and Beta-carotene: Incidence and morality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998, 909; 6: 440-446
- Losonczy, Katalin, G., et al. Vitamin E and Vitamin C Supplement Use and Risk of all-cause and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Older Persons: The Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly
- Emmert, O.H., et al. The Role of Vitamin E in the Prevention of Heart Disease; Arch Family Med. 1999; 8: 6:537-542
- Stampfer, M., et al. epidemiologic Evidence fro Vitamin E in Prevention of cardiovascular Disease. Am J Con Nutr, 1995, 62 (supple): 1356-69
- Jimenez-Jimenez, F.J., et al. Serum levels of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and vitamin A in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Eur J Neurol 1999 Jul; 6 (4): 495-7
- Vatassery, G.T., et al. High doses of vitamin E in the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system in the aged. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, Nov; 70 (5): 793-801
- Smith, M.A., et al. Oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease. Biochem Biophys Acta 2000 Jul 26; 1502 (1): 139-144
- Dagnelie, G., et al. Lutein improves visual function in some patients with retinal degeneration: a pilot study via the Internet. Optometry 2000, 71: 3; 147-164
- Seddon, J.M., et al. Dietary Carotenoids, vitamin A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degenration. JAMA 1994, 272: 1413-1420
- Mares-Perlmen, J.A., et al. Serum antioxidants and age-related macular degeneration in a population-based case control study. Arch Ophthalmol 1988. 113: 1518-1523
- Jampol, L.M., et al. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group (collective name-AREDS). A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no.8. Arch Ophthalmol 2001 Oct; 119 (10): 1417-36
- West, S., et al. Are antioxidants or supplements protective of age-related macular degeneration? Arch Ophthalmol. 1994. 112: 222-227
- Olson, R. J. Supplemental antioxidant vitamins and minerals in patients with macular degeneration. J Am Coll Nutr, 1991; 10: 550/Abstract 52
- Richer, S. Multicenter Ophthalmic and Nutritional age-related macular degeneration sutyd. Part 1: Design, Subjects and procedure. J Am Optom Assoc 1996, 67: 12-29
- Richer, S., Part 2 Multicenter Ophthalmic and Nutritional age-related macular degenration study, Part 1: Design, Subjects and Procedure. J Am Optom Assoc 1996, 67: 30-49
- Robertson, J., et al. A possible role for vitamin C and E in cataract prevention. Am J Clin Nutr, 1991, 53: 1: 346-351 (suppl)
- Stone, W.L., et al. Tocopheroils and the etiology of colon cancer. J Natl Cancer Instit. 1997, 89; 4: 1006-1014
- Blot, W.J., et al. The Linxian trials: mortality rates by vitamin-mineral intervention group. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995, 62; 6: 1424-1426 (suppl)
- Bandaru, S., et al. Chemoprevention of colon cancer by organoselenium compounds and impact of high or low-fat diets. J natl Cancer Instit. 1997, 89; 7: 506-512
- Clark, L.C., et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. JAMA, 1996, 276; 24: 1957-1963
- Russo, M.W., et al. Plasma selenium levels and the risk of colorectal adenomas. Nutr Cancer 1997, 28; 2: 125-129
- Willett, W.C., et al. Prediagnostic serum selenium and risk of cancer. Lancet, 1983, 2: 130-134
- Kyrtopoulos, S. Ascorbic acid and the formation of N-nitroso compounds: possible role of ascorbic acid in cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987, 45; 5: 1344-1350
- Tannenbaum, S.R., et al. Inhibition of nitrosamine formation by ascorbic acid. Am J Clin Nutrm 1991, 53; 1: 247-250 (suppl)
- Block, G. Vitamin C and cancer prevention: the epidemiologic evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991, 53; 1: 270-282 (suppl)
- Shronts, Eva P. 11 Basic concepts of Immunology and Its Application to Clinical Nutrition; Nutrition in clinical Practice, #4 (19913), p.177; also Lancet, Vol.340 (November 7, 1992), pp.1124-27
- Chandra, Ranjit K. Effect of Vitamin and Trace-Element Supplementation on Immune Responses and Infection in Elderly Subjects; Lancet, Vol. 340 (1992), pp. 1124-27
- Breecher interview with Dr. Blumberg. Also Vitamins, Trace Elements, and Immunologic Youth; Patient Care (March 16, 1993), pp. 21-22
- Chandra. Effect of Vitamin and Trace-Element Supplementation
- Breecher interview with Meydani et al. Antioxidants and the Aging Immune Response; Antioxidants, Nutrients, and Immune Functions; ed. Adrianne Bendich, Marshall Phillips, and Robert P. Tengerdy (New York: Plenum, 1988), p.57
- Bogden, John, et al. Daily Micronutrient Supplements Enhance Delayed Hypersensitivity Skin Test Results in Older People; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.60, No.3 (September 1994), p.437
- Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy (7th edition.) Krause M and Mahan K edit. W.B. Saunders Company 1984: 119-132
- Pressman, A and Adams, A. Clinical Assessment of Nutritional Status: a working manual. (published by Management Enterprises, New York, 1982): 29-36
- Werbach, M. Nutritional Influences on Illness. (published by Third Line press, Inc., California, 1987)
- Pizzorno, J. Total Wellness. (published by Prima Publishing, U.S., 1996); Normalizing Inflammatory Function: 163-191
- Jennings E. Folic acid as a cancer-preventing agent. Med Hypotheses 45, 297-303, 1995.
- Butterworth CE, Jr., Hatch KD, Gore H, Krumdieck CL. Improvement in cervical dysplasia associated with folic acid therapy in users of oral contraceptives. Am J Cli Nutr 35, 73-82, 1982.
- VanEenwyk J, Davis FG, Colman N. Folate, vitamin C and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1, 119-124, 1992.
- Butterworth CE, Jr., Hatch KD, Macaluso M, Cole P, Sauberlich HE et al. Folate deficiency and cervical dysplasia. JAMA 267, 528-533, 1992.
- Morrison HI, Schaubel D, Desmeules M, Wigle DT. Serus folate and risk of fatal coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1996;275:1983-1896
- Chasan-Taber L, Selhub J, Roseberg IH, et al. A prospective study of folate and vitamin B6 and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. J Coll Nutr. 1996;15:136-143
- Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. Folate, methionine, and alcohol intake and risk of colorectal adenoma J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85:875-884
- Selhub J, Jacques PF, Wilson PWF, Rush D, Roseberg IH. Vitamin status and intake as primary determinanats of homocysteinemia in an elderly population. JAMA, 1993;270:2693-2698
- Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Willett WC. Dietary folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intake and risk of CHD among a large population of men. Circulation. 1996;93:625. Abstract
- Pancharuniti N, Lewis CA, Sauberlich HE, et al. Plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 concentrations and risk for early-onset coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:940-948
- Bendich A. Folic and prevention of neural tube birth defects: critical assessment of FDA proposals to increase folic acid intakes. J Nutr Educ. 1994; 26:294-299
- Riggs K. et al. Relations of vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, Folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996; 63:306-14.
- Martin DC. B12 and folate deficiency dementia. Clin Geriatr Med 1988;4:841-52.
- Abou-Saleh MT, Coppen A. The biology of folate in depression: implications for nutritional hypotheses of the psychoses. J Psychiatr Res 1986;20:91-101.
- Sauberlich HE. Relationship of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In: Bendich A, Butterworth CE Jr, eds. Micronutrients in health and in disease prevention. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc, 1991:187-218.
- Bohnen N, Jolles J, Degenaar CP. Lower blood levels of vitamin B12 are related to decreased performance of healthy subjects in the Stroop Color-Word Test. Neurosci Res Commun 1992;11:53-6.
- Goodwin JS, Goodwin JM, Garry PJ. Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population. JAMA 1983;249:2917-21.
- Joosten E, van den Berg A, Riezler R, et al. Metabolic evidence that deficiencies of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), folate, and vitamin B6 occur commonly in elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58:468-76.
- Lindenbaum J, Rosenberg IH, Wilson PWF, Stabler SP, Allen RH. Prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in the Framingham elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:2-11.
- Leklem JE. Vitamin B6. A status report. J Nutr 1990;120:1503-7.
- Carney MWP, Toone BK, Reynolds EH. S-Adenosylmethionine and affective disorder. Am J Med 1987;83(suppl 5A):104-6.
- Levitt AJ, Joffe RT. Folate, vitamin B12, and life course of depressive illness. Biol Psychiatry 1989;25:867-72.
- Shane B, Stokstad ELR, Vitamin B12 folate interrelationships. Annu Rev Nutr 1985;5:115-41.
- Dakshinamurti K, Paulose CS, Siow YL. Neurobiology of pyridoxine. In: Reynolds RD, Leklem JE, eds. Vitamin B6: its role in health and disease. New York: Alan R Liss, Inc, 1985;99-121.
- Selhub J, Jacques PJ, Wilson PWF, Rush D, Rosenberg IH. Vitamin status and intake as primary determinants of homocysteinemia in the elderly. JAMA 1993;270:2693-8.
- Jacques PJ, Riggs KM. B vitamins as risk factors for age-related diseases. In: Rosenberg IH, ed. Nutritional assessment of elderly populations. Measure and function. New York: Raven Press, 1995.
- Berg S. Psychological functioning in 70-and 75-year old people. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1980;Suppl 288:1-47.
- Botwinick J, Storandt M. Memory, related functions and age. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1974.
- Hertzog C, Schaie KW, Gribbin K. Cardiovasular disease and changes in intellectual functioning from middle to old age. J Gerontol 1978;33:872-83.
- Rinn WE. Mental decline in normal aging: A review. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1988;1:144-58.
- Spieth W. Slowness of task performance and cardiovascular disease. In: Welford AT, Birren JE, eds. Behavior, aging and the nervous system. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1965:366-400.
- Optimal Calcium Intake: NIH Consensus Panel. JAMA, 1994;272(24):1942-48.
- Honley D. et al. Prevention and management of osteoporosis. Can Med Asso J 1996;155;(7):921-23.
- Ettinger B., Genant H.K., Cann C.E. Postmenopausal bone loss is prevented by treatment with low-dosage estrogen with calcium. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:40-5.
- Elders P.J.J., Netelenbos J.C., Lips P., van Ginkel F.C. Calcium supplementation reduces perimenopausal bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 1989;4(suppl):1128(abstr).
- Stepan J.J., Pospichal J., Prest J., Pacovsky V. Prospective trial of ossein-hydroxyapatite compound in surgically induced postmenopausal women. Bone 1989;10:179-85.
- Dawson-Hughes B., Dallal G., Tannenbaum S., Sahyoun N., Krall E. Effect of calcium supplements on postmenopausal bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 1989;4(suppl):109(abstr).
- Llyod T.L. et al. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. JAMA 1993;270:841-4.
- Polley K.J., Nordin B.E.C., Baghurst P.A., Walker C.J., Chatterton B.E. Effect of calcium supplementation on forearm bone mineral content in postmenopausal women: a prospective, sequential controlled trail. J Nutr 1987;117:1929-35.
- Smith E.L., Gilligan C., Smith PE., Sempos C.T. Calcium supplementation and bone loss in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:833-42.
- Windsor A.C.M. et al. The effect of whole-bone extract on 47 calcium absorption in the elderly. Age and Aging 1973;2:230-234.
- Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium supplementation and bone loss: a review of controlled clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:274(S)-280(S).
- Harvey J.A., Zobitz M.M., Pak C.Y.C. Dose dependency of calcium absorption: a comparison of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. J Bone Miner Res 1988;3:253-8.
- Taking Supplements for osteoporosis: Advice for the Pharmacist. Jason Sit. mycefuge@ geacities.com.
- Horowitz M. et al. Oral calcium suppresses biochemical markers of bone resorption in normal men. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:965-968.
- Reid I.R., Ames R.W., Evans M.C., Gamble G.D., Sharpe S.J. Effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1993;328:460-4.
- Chapuy M.C,. Arlot M.E., Duboeuf F. et al. Vitamin D3 and calcium prevent hip fractures in elderly women. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1637-42.
- Kinyamu, H.K. Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D intake in elderly woman: effect on serum parnathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolites. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67: 342-8
- Dawson-Hughes, B. et al. Rates of bone loss in postmenopausal women randomly assigned to one of two dosages of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61: 1140-5
- Kreiger, N., et al. Dietary factors and fracture in postmenopausal women: a case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 1992: 21953-8
- Dawson-Hughes, B., et al. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone desnity in men and women 55 yers of age and older. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 670-6
- Devine A. C. Rosen, Mohan S., Baylink D., Prince R. Effects of zinc and other nutritional factors on insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68:200-6.
- Droke EA, Spears JW, Armstrong JD, Kegley EB, Simpson RB. Dietary zinc affects serum concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I in growing lambs. J Nutr 1993; 123:13-9.
Essential Fatty Acids
- Dietary Supplement Information bureau (Dietary Supplement Education Alliance, U.S.A.) www.supplementinfo.org/omega-6 fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids
- Maes M, Christophe A, Bosmans E, et al. In humans, serum polyunsaturated fatty acid levels predict the response of proinflammatory cytokines to psychological stress. Biol Psychiatry 2000;47:910–20.
- DiGiacoma RA, Kremer JM, Shah DM. Fish-oil dietary supplementation in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon: a double-blind, controlled, prospective study. Am J Med 1989;86:158–64.
- Joe LA, Hart LL. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:1475–7 [review].
- Horrobin DF. The importance of gamma-linolenic acid and prostaglandin E1 in human nutrition and medicine. J Holistic Med 1981;3:118–39.
- Health Notes. www.puritan.com/Health Notes/Supp/EPA
- Murray Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. (Prima publishing, 1996):239-278
- Gibson RA, Neumann MA, Makrides M. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on brain composition and neural function in term infants. Lipids 1996;31:177S–81S.
- Makrides M, Neumann MA, Gibson RA. Is dietary docosahexaenoic acid essential for term infants? Lipids 1996;31:115–9.
- Horrobin DF, Manku M, Brush M, et al. Abnormalities in plasma essential fatty acid levels in women with pre-menstrual syndrome and with non-malignant breast disease. J Nutr Med 1991;2:259–64.
- Keen H, Payan J, Allawi J, et al. Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid. Diabetes Care 1993;16:8–15.
- Manku MS, Horrobin, DF, Morse NL, et al. Essential fatty acids in the plasma phospholipids of patients with atopic eczema. Br J Derm 1984;110:643.
- Horrobin DF. Essential fatty acids in clinical dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;20:1045–53
- Leventhal LJ, et al. Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Gammalinolenic Acid. Ann Intern Med. Nov1993;119(9):867-73.
- Holland PA, et al. Drug Therapy of Mastalgia. What are the Options? Drugs. Nov1994;48(5):709-16.
- Pye JK, et al. Clinical Experience of Drug Treatments for Mastalgia. Lancet. Aug1985;2(8451):373-77.
- Stevens L, Zentall SS, Deck JL. Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:761-768.
- Galland L. Increased Requirements for Essential Fatty Acids in Atopic Individuals: A Review with Clinical Descriptions. J Am Coll Nutr. 1986;5(2):213-28.
- Masuev KA. The Effect of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of the Omega-3 Class on the Late Phase of the Allergic Reaction in Bronchial Asthma Patients. Ter Arkh. 1997;69(3):31-33.
- Isseroff RR. Fish Again for Dinner! The Role of Fish and other Dietary Oils in the Therapy of Skin Disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. Dec1988;19(6):1073-80.
- Kinsella JE, et al. Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Amelioration of Cardiovascular Disease: Possible Mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr. Jul1990;52(1):1-28.
- Garg ML, et al. Alpha-linolenic Acid and Metabolism of Cholesterol and Long-chain Fatty Acids. Nutrition. Jun1992;8(3):208-10.
- Knapp HR, et al. The Antihypertensive Effects of Fish Oil. A Controlled Study of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplements in Essential Hypertension. N Engl J Med. Apr1989;320(16):1037-43.
- Harris WS, Park Y, Isley WL. Cardiovascular disease and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2003 Feb;14(1):9-14.
- Calder PC. Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 Aug;61(3):345-58.
- Geusens P, et al. Long-term Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis. A 12-month, Double-blind, Controlled Study. Arthritis Rheum. Jun1994;37(6):824-29.
- Mate J, Castanos R, Garcia-Samaniego J, Pajares JM. Does dietary fish oil maintain the remission of Crohn’s disease: a case control study. Gastroenterology 1991;100:A228 [abstract].
- Kremer JM, Lawrence DA, Petrillow GF, et al. Effects of highdose fish oil on rheumatoid arthritis after stopping nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:1107–14.